Anil Biswas was born on July 7th, 1914 in Barisal (which is now part of Bangladesh). In his childhood itself he had good hand on Tabla and singing. During his childhood he used to sing at local amateur theatre. Anil was also an active participant of freedom movement, due to which he also traveled to jail.
Later his love for music brought him to Kolkata, which was a film hub of that time. There he approached Qazi Nazrul Islam's Indian Theatre Association, which in turn gave him chance to work as music composer at Rang Mahal Theatre. While working as a music composer, he also did some stage acting there. He had also worked for Gramophone Company for a short period.
In 1934, Anil shifted to Bombay (Mumbai), where he got job at Eastern Art Syndicate. Later on he employed at Sagar Movietone for which he worked from 1940 to 1942. With Sagar Movietone, he gave beautiful compositions in films like Aurat (1940), Roti (1942) and Bahen (1941). Followed by it he worked for Bombay Talkies. His outstanding movie along with Bombay Talkies includes Kismet. Songs from Kismet- 'Dur Hato Woh Duniyawaalon Hindustaan Hamaara Hai', 'Ghar Ghar Me Diwaali', 'Dhire Dhire Aa' were all hit. His other notable work along with Bombay Talkies includes films Jwaar Bhatta (1944) and Milan (1946). Both of the films were hit and one reason for it was its music.
Anil Biswas is best known for adapting theatrical music in films. He was the one, who created the basic structure of songs for films, which even today the music composers follow. He innovated the way of using counter melody and Raag Maala. Anil also helped to boost the careers of singers like Talat Mehmood, Mukesh, Surendranath, Parul Ghosh and Sitara Devi. He also taught the singers that how to cotrol their breath for effective singing. He extracted the best from all these singers. He was the one who bring out Mukesh from K.L. Saigal's clone. Also he advised Talat Mehmood to maintain the shakiness in his singing, while other composers were thinking that it was Talat's weak point. Anil's advice proved true, as tremor becomes Talat's unique style, which made him unique from other singers.
Anil later departed from Bombay talkies and started working on freelance basis. His other works includes Filmistan's 'Heer', Mahesh Kaul's 'Abhimaan' and 'Sautela Bhai', and KA Abbas's 'Rahi', 'Munna', 'Pardesi' and 'Char Dil Char Rahein'.
Anil Biswas moved to Delhi after the tragic death of his most loved elder son in an accident. In Delhi, he was appointed as a vice-chancellor at Jawaharlal Nehru University for over two years. He also worked as a Chief Producer for Sugam Sangeet on All India Radio, Delhi from 1963 to 1975.
His last composition for films was Chhoti Chhoti Baatein in 1965, in which his wife Meena Kapoor has sung some songs. Anil later did composition for Doordarshan's serial Hum Log in 1984. However, he also had composed music for several documentaries by Films Division.
Anil's other well-known movies as music composer includes Gramophone Singer, Jeet, Aaram, Humdard, Faraar, Waaris, Pardesi and Angulimal. The veteran, the talented music composer died on May 31, 2003 in Delhi.
Anil Biswas - Hit Compositions